Foundations

Foundations B

For students who know all the sounds of a-z and can read and spell short vowel words with consonant blends.

Without rote memorization of sight words early readers develop the critical thinking skills for language learning needed to read and spell words such as the, was, have, and great.

Skills Taught in Foundations B

  • Apply phonemic awareness skills in order to learn new spelling rules.
  • Blend multi-syllable words auditorily.
  • Write uppercase letters in cursive or manuscript.
  • Read and spell 21 multi-letter phonograms.
  • Understand two common reasons a vowel can say its long sound.
  • Identify a vowel saying a schwa sound.
  • Read and spell words using the first three silent final E rules.
  • Read 294 high-frequency words.
  • Count syllables.
  • Read and comprehend phonics-controlled fiction books.
  • Compose developmentally appropriate original texts.
Download the Scope & Sequence for Foundations B
Building on the concepts taught in Lessons 1-40, Foundations B includes Lessons 41-80, 8 additional assessment and review lessons, and 16 phonics-controlled fiction readers.
The concepts taught in Foundations build upon one another. Students must begin in either Foundations A (Lessons 1-40) or Foundations B (Lessons 41-80). Even teachers who have a master’s degree in reading education say they learn new concepts, such as what a schwa is and where it occurs in words, in Foundations B. Understanding these concepts is vital to success with the rest of Foundations as well as for developing strong reading and spelling skills.
Let's Take a Tour, Average Lesson time 30-45 minutes

Optional Pre-Lesson

A pre-lesson for those who are new to Foundations but have the skills to start at Foundations B. Or for Foundations A students who have taken a break and need review.
Starting at B Pre-lesson
Logic of English teaches all the sounds of a-z in Foundations A. For example, a says three sounds /ă-ā-ä/. y says four sounds /y-ĭ-ī-ē/... Students who begin with Foundations B will need to be introduced to sounds that they were not taught and begin to develop mastery with these sounds.
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Lesson 41

Read and spell words with multi-letter phonograms.
lesson 41 Examples

Phonemic Awareness

Blending two-syllable words prepares students for decoding two-syllable words.

Skills Taught

  • Blend two-syllable words from an auditory prompt.

Systematic Phonics

In the first lesson of B, students begin learning letter names, learn their second multi-letter phonogram, and apply the phonics concepts they are learning with Spelling Analysis.

Skills Taught

  • Read short vowel sounds marked with a breve.
  • Read long vowel sounds marked with a macron.
  • Read the sound of the multi-letter phonogram sh.
  • Identify the name of each letter.
  • Decode words with the multi-letter phonogram sh.
Students learn the sounds of a-z in Foundations A as they learn lowercase handwriting. While learning the uppercase letters and their relationship to lowercase letters in Foundations B, they learn the letter names. Foundations emphasizes the sounds of the phonograms because the sounds are the most important information for reading and spelling words. Letter names are important for communicating spellings efficiently, but they are not needed for learning to read and spell.

Handwriting

Students learned the lowercase letters in Foundations A. In Foundations B, they learn to read and write the uppercase letters. At the same time, they begin encountering them in reading comprehension texts.

Skills Taught

  • Write uppercase spell.

Spelling Analysis

During Spelling Analysis students apply new phonograms with concepts learned in prior lessons. By learning why words are read and spelled in a particular way, students can then apply this information to read and spell new words.

Skills Taught

  • Encode words with the multi-letter phonogram sh.
  • Words taught: fish, ship, flash, spot, drum

Comprehension and Fluency

As soon as students are taught how to decode words, they begin to practice word-level comprehension and fluency skills with engaging games and activities.

Skills Taught

  • Decode a phrase independently and demonstrate an understanding of its meaning.
Download the complete lesson.

Lesson 45

Read and spell words with a schwa sound!
lesson 45 Examples

Phonemic Awareness

Many students struggle to read multi-syllable words because they have not mastered the skill of blending them from an auditory prompt.

Skills Taught

  • Blend two-syllable words from an auditory prompt.

Systematic Phonics

Schwa, the most common sound in English, is key to success in reading and spelling. It is also the most commonly misunderstood concept in English. Learning what schwa is and why it happens in words is often an aha moment.

Skills Taught

  • Identify the name of each letter.
  • Demonstrate an understanding that the schwa vowel sound is a lazy sound where the mouth does not open as far and that the sound is quieter and distorted.
  • Demonstrate an understanding that any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /u/ or /i/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
  • Recognize the symbol for schwa, ə.
  • Decode one-syllable words with the schwa sound.

Handwriting

Students continue learning uppercase letters.

Skills Taught

  • Write uppercase M.

Spelling Analysis

Frequently-used English words that are commonly taught as “sight words” appear prominently in Foundations B, where students learn how they are spelled and why, eliminating the need for rote memorization.

Skills Taught

  • Encode one-syllable words where the vowel says its schwa sound.
  • Words taught: a, his, the, then, pink

Comprehension and Fluency

As students learn new systematic phonics skills, they develop reading fluency by playing high-frequency word games. With the Foundations B Readers, students are introduced to a wide variety of comprehension skills which prepare them for reading success.

Skills Taught

  • Read high-frequency words.
  • Identify the title.
  • Make predictions.
  • Recall facts.
  • Explain how illustrations relate to a text.
  • Form and express an opinion.
  • Decode a phrase independently and demonstrate an understanding of its meaning.
Download the complete lesson.

Lesson 61

Read and spell words with two reasons for a silent final E!
lesson 61 Examples

Systematic Phonics

The commonly taught rule “The vowel says its name because of the E” only explains 50% of silent final E words! There are actually nine reasons for a silent final E in English, two of which are taught in Foundations B. Logic of English teaches how English really works!

Skills Taught

  • Match lowercase and uppercase letters.
  • Decode words that follow the silent final E rule English words do not end in V or U.
  • Explain why the silent final E is needed in a given word.

Handwriting

Students continue learning and practicing uppercase letters.

Skills Taught

  • Write uppercase E.

Spelling Analysis

Spelling Analysis teaches students the critical thinking skills to read and spell increasingly complex words.

Skills Taught

  • Encode words that follow the silent final E rule English words do not end in V or U.
  • Words taught: have, give, smile, ask, thank

Fluency

Research shows that when students read fluently, they can attend more closely to comprehension. To develop fluency, students apply new rules to additional words by playing fun and engaging games.

Skills Taught

  • Fluently read words with a silent final E.
Download the complete lesson.

Lesson 70

Read controlled phonics text with increasing fluency.
lesson 70 Examples

Phonemic Awareness

Rhyming is the most difficult of the phonemic awareness skills. To rhyme, students need to know how to segment a word and how to identify the medial vowel and final consonant.

Skills Taught

  • Rhyme one-syllable words.

Systematic Phonics

Step by step students are learning the rules which explain English spelling.

Skills Taught

  • Decode words that follow the rule, We often double F, L, and S after a single, short or broad vowel at the end of the base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.

Handwriting

Once students know the uppercase letters, they are ready to practice handwriting by copying sentences.

Skills Taught

  • Copy a sentence from a model.

Spelling Analysis

Spelling Analysis teaches students the critical thinking skills to read and spell increasingly complex words.

Skills Taught

  • Encode words that follow the rule, We often double F, L, and S after a single, short or broad vowel at the end of the base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.
  • {"Words taught"=>"egg, buzz, bring, cake, way"}

Comprehension and Fluency

Students continue to develop word level fluency and to read engaging books.

Skills Taught

  • Read high-frequency words.
  • Identify the title.
  • Make predictions.
  • Recall facts.
  • Make inferences using picture clues.
  • Relate the text to the reader's personal experience.

Composition

As students’ writing skills develop they then begin to apply these skills to creating original works based upon the texts they have been reading.

Skills Taught Taught

  • Create a poster.
Students should not be required to write until they have been taught how to form the letters and they have begun to develop spelling skills. If a student is writing on their own initiative, encourage them to continue. Many students, however, do not like to write because they have not yet developed enough handwriting and spelling skills to give them confidence.
Download the complete lesson.

Foundations B Readers

Foundations B Readers

Eight delightful fictional stories introduce students to the love of reading. Foundations B readers include multi-letter phonograms, uppercase letters, silent final E's, high-frequency words such as the, a, and was, and long vowels.
Foundations B Reader 1
Foundations B Reader 5
Foundations B Reader 8

Young Artist Series

Logic of English partnered with student artists to bring you this additional set of Foundations B Readers. Controlled for phonograms and spelling rules, these delightful stories continue to build fluency and increase student confidence!
Young Artists Series Reader 1
Young Artists Series Reader 5
Young Artists Series Reader 8

Assessment F

Continue to track students’ progress as they master additional foundational skills such as reading high-frequency words.
Foundations B Assessment
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What is included in the B?

Teacher Items

Foundations B requires the continued use of several reusable core materials from the Teacher Items included in the Foundations A Set.

Student Items

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You will need one of each item per student, with the exception of the Phonogram Game Cards Set. You will need one Phonogram Game Card Set for every four students.
Foundations B Workbook Foundations B Readers Foundations B Readers: Young Artist Series

Suggested Supplements

Whistling Whales Phonogram Songs Logic of English Game Book Rhythm of Handwriting Wall Strips Sandpaper Letters Master Teacher Training Course Mini Course: Spelling Analysis One-Syllable Words

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