Foundations

Foundations D

For students who have completed Foundations C.

Foundations D opens up the world of real books, supporting students as they develop the ability to read independently, rooted in the foundational skills they have mastered in
Foundations A, B, and C.

Students also expand their spelling skills as they analyze words such as penguin, princess, difference, and magician.


Skills Taught in Foundations D

  • Read and spell all 75 Basic Phonograms. Basic Phonograms are used frequently or found in one or more commonly used word. For example, the basic phonograms sh, th, and ti are used frequently, while the basic phonogram augh is found in a frequently used word: daughter. The basic phonograms should be practiced to the point of mastery for reading and spelling.
  • Identify 8 Advanced Phonograms.
    Advanced Phonograms are less common than basic phonograms and are used in more advanced vocabulary such as the pn in pneumonia. The advanced phonograms do not need to be mastered for reading and spelling. Students who understand the concept of phonograms will be able to use this knowledge to figure out the advanced phonograms. However, it is good for students to be introduced to advanced phonograms so they know advanced phonograms are a possibility when encountering them in new words.
  • Understand and apply 20 spelling rules.
  • Add suffixes to English words.
  • Read and comprehend children’s literature and nonfiction texts.
  • Identify texts as fiction or nonfiction.
  • Identify main ideas, character traits, and problems and resolutions in the stories they have read.
  • Use textual elements such as images, captions, and the glossaries to increase comprehension.
  • Identify nouns and verbs.
  • Write contractions.
  • Use morphology to distinguish commonly confused words such as too and two.
  • Create posters, lists, summaries, letters, and books.
  • Increase reading speed and accuracy.
Download the Scope & Sequence for Foundations D
Building on the concepts taught in Lessons 81-120, the journey continues with Foundations D

Every lesson includes reading a book or a chapter from an early chapter book. Foundations D provides integrated language arts lessons, incorporating literature, spelling, vocabulary, grammar, and composition, as well as continued systematic phonics and fluency instruction. Some teachers opt to split the lessons in half and teach them across two days.

By the time they complete Foundations D, students will be able to read any book at a first or second grade level, and many students may be reading books at a third grade level or above.

Let's Take a Tour, Average Lesson time 90+ minutes

Lesson 122

Foundations D pairs fiction and non fiction texts. In this lesson, students read an academic text and apply the knowledge they have gained from it to expand their understanding of a fiction text.
lesson 122 Examples

Systematic Phonics

As students learn their first advanced phonograms and review the reasons for a silent final E, their knowledge of the written structure of English deepens. Mastery of these skills prepares students to comprehend and to fluently read the nonfiction text The Arctic and the Antarctic.

Skills Taught

  • Recognize that an unfamiliar and less common spelling in a word may be an advanced phonogram.
  • Read the sounds, in the order of frequency, of the 75 Basic Phonograms.
  • Explain why the silent final E is needed in a given word.
  • Identify ce as an Advanced Phonogram. Demonstrate familiarity, but not necessarily mastery, of its sound.

Grammar

Understanding sentences is an abstract concept for young readers and writers. Foundations D teaches students how to identify sentences one step at a time. Understanding what a sentences is helps students to read with deeper comprehension and prepares them to become strong writers.

Skills Taught

  • Demonstrate an understanding that a sentence must have a capital letter, subject, verb, complete thought, and end mark.
  • Identify the end marks as a period, question mark, or exclamation point.
  • Count the number of sentences in a text by identifying the capital letter and end marks.

Spelling

By learning how to spell words through spelling analysis, students discover the underlying logic to the words which increases both reading and spelling fluency. The spelling list in Lesson 122 reveals the reasons underlying the commonly misunderstood words: one and two, and demonstrates how English spelling is a balance of sounds and meaning.

Skills Taught

  • Encode words that use previously taught spelling skills.
  • Apply knowledge of morphemes to explain the spelling of words that have exceptions to the spelling rules.
  • Spelling Analysis Words: alone, lone, one, twin, twice, two, twelve, twenty

Comprehension

As students read the nonfiction book The Arctic and the Antarctic, they develop a deeper understanding of the previous lessons’ fiction book Polar Opposites while continuing to expand upon the skills needed to read an academic text with confidence.

Skills Taught

  • Identify the title.
  • Identify the subtitle.
  • Identify the author.
  • Make predictions about the text using the title and cover.
  • Analyze the author's choice of a title.
  • Recall facts.
  • Identify bold print within a text.
  • Use context to identify the meaning of an unknown vocabulary word.
  • Locate and use a glossary.
  • Identify a text as fiction or nonfiction.

Vocabulary

In Foundations D when a new vocabulary word is introduced, the students learn about the morphemes, units of meaning, which make up the word. As students learn the meaning of morphemes, they expand their ability to comprehend unknown words in texts.

Skills Taught

  • Demonstrate an understanding that a prefix is attached before a root and that it changes the meaning of the word.
  • Identify words that are antonyms.

Handwriting

Foundations D includes copywork activities to help students continue to master the handwriting style they learned in levels A and B.

Skills Taught

  • Read typed text and copy it in handwriting.
Download the complete lesson.

Lesson 141

Foundations D pairs fiction and non fiction texts. In this lesson, students read an academic text and apply the knowledge they have gained from it to expand their understanding of a fiction text.
lesson 141 Examples

Systematic Phonics

Skills Taught

  • Recognize that an unfamiliar and less common spelling in a word may be an advanced phonogram.
  • Read the sounds, in the order of frequency, of each of the 75 Basic Phonograms.

Grammar

Skills Taught

  • Identify if a word is a noun.
  • Demonstrate an understanding that a sentence must have a capital letter, subject, verb, complete thought, and end mark.
  • Identify each part of the sentence: capital letter, subject, verb, complete thought, and end mark.

Spelling

Skills Taught

  • Encode plural words ending in -S.
  • Encode plural words ending in -ES.
  • Encode one-, two-, and three-syllable words that follow the rules and use the phonograms that the student has been taught.
  • Spelling Analysis Words: floppy, ghost, sorry, straight, told, curly, lemon, chocolate

Comprehension

Skills Taught

  • Identify the title.
  • Identify the author.
  • Identify the illustrator.
  • Make predictions about the text using the title and cover.
  • Locate and use the table of contents.
  • Identify the characters.
  • Identify the problem in a story.
  • Identify how the problem was solved.
  • Describe a character.
  • Relate the text to the reader's personal experience.

Composition

Skills Taught

  • Compose complete sentences using prompts.
  • Create a mind map.
  • Use a graphic organizer to orally compose ideas.
Download the complete lesson.

Assessments

Foundations D Assessments measure students' mastery of systematic phonics, grammar, spelling, reading comprehension, and fluency. Each assessment includes a text for students to read aloud and guidance on how to assess fluency.
Foundations D Assessment
Download the complete assessment. Download a form to track your student’s progress.

Foundations D Readers

In Foundations D, students read great children's literature such as Polar Opposites and develop academic reading skills while reading nonfiction books such as The Arctic and the Antarctic.

Foundations D Reader Set

Eight original nonfiction readers provide background knowledge and deeper insights into the children's literature read in Foundations D. Longer paragraphs and new vocabulary strengthen students’ academic reading skills.
Foundations D Reader 1
Foundations D Reader 2
Foundations D Reader 3
Foundations D Reader 4
Foundations D Reader 5
Foundations D Reader 6
Foundations D Reader 7
Foundations D Reader 8

Foundations D Children’s Literature Set

The 11 books in this set provide the spine for the Foundations D lessons. Vocabulary, spelling analysis, fluency practice, and composition activities are all based upon this delightful set of books!
The Big Blue Book of Beginner Books
Polar Opposites
A Fish Out of Water
Ling & Ting: Not Exactly the Same
Dodsworth in New York
Should I Share My Ice Cream?
Little Bear
Henry & Modge: The First Book
Mr Putter & Tabby: Pour the Tea
Upstairs Mouse, Downstairs Mole
Frog and Toad Together
Are you buying for a school?
Build your own quote.
Start


What is included in the D?

Teacher Items

Foundations D requires the continued use of several teacher reusable core materials from the Teacher Items included in the Foundations A and B Sets.

Student Items

Excited kids
Foundations D Workbook Foundations D Readers The Big Blue Book of Beginner Books Polar Opposites A Fish Out of Water Ling & Ting: Not Exactly the Same Dodsworth in New York Should I Share My Ice Cream? Little Bear Henry & Modge: The First Book Mr Putter & Tabby: Pour the Tea Upstairs Mouse, Downstairs Mole Frog and Toad Together

Suggested Supplements

Logic of English Game Book Master Teacher Training Course Mini Course: Spelling Analysis One-Syllable Words Mini Course: Spelling Analysis Multi-Syllable Words Mini Course: Spelling Analysis with Schwa and Say-to-Spell Uncovering the Logic of English

What's next? Let's tour

Essentials
Essentials Tree

Curious for more details?

Check out our comprehensive FAQ.

Learn More